Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

What is Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)? Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as Ischemic Coronary Heart Disease, is a cardiovascular disease that occurs when the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits (plaque) on their walls, leading to reduced blood flow to the heart. CAD is the leading cause of death globally, accounting for 16% of global mortality.

What Causes Coronary Artery Disease?

The etiology of coronary artery disease is multifactorial, entailing the interaction of several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. However, the pathogenesis involves the development of atherosclerosis, which leads to the narrowing and blockage of vessels.


Modifiable risk factors:

  • Smoking
  • Hypertension
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Sedentary Lifestyle
  • Poor diet.


Non-modifiable risk factors:

  • Age over 65
  • Male gender
  • Family history of CAD
  • Ethnicity


Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease

  • Chest pain that may radiate to the neck, jaw, shoulders, arms, or back.
  • Dyspnea, especially on exertion.
  • Fatigue, weakness, lightheadedness, or fainting.
  • Sweating, nausea, or vomiting.


Source: Malakar, A. K., Choudhury, D. R., Halder, B., Paul, P., Uddin, A., & Chakraborty, S. (2019). A review on coronary artery disease, its risk factors, and therapeutics. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 234(10), 16812–16823.