What is Eczema? Eczema is the most common dermatological condition, causing inflammation and damage to the skin barrier. It can affect anyone, although some types are more common in certain age groups. The effects of eczema can be mild or severe, causing significant disruption to the patient’s quality of life.

Types of Eczema:

  • Atopic Dermatitis (most common)
  • Contact Dermatitis
  • Stasis Dermatitis
  • Seborrheic Dermatitis
  • Juvenile Plantar Dermatosis
  • Dyshidrotic Eczema
  • Nummular Eczema


What causes Eczema?


Eczema is thought to be caused by the interaction of several factors, internal and external. Genetic predisposition, environment, and abnormal immune response have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis.


Risk factors for the development of eczema and subsequent flares include a family history of eczema and other atopic conditions (hay fever, asthma), personal history of another type of eczema and of other atopic conditions, age, exposure to environmental irritants, weather (temperature and humidity), emotional stress, changes in skin flora, and trauma to the skin.

What are the symptoms of Eczema?

The severity and manifestation of eczema are varied from person to person, and are dependent on the type of eczema. The symptoms can include:

  • Itching (most common)
  • Dryness
  • Redness
  • Scaling
  • Changes in skin pigmentation
  • Thickening of the skin
  • Blisters

How is Eczema treated?


The management of eczema is multifaceted and varies by severity and type. It can require behavioral changes to avoid irritants or certain kinds of weather, or may require pharmacologic solutions as well.


There are several topical medications available over the counter and by prescription, including topical steroids, emollients, topical anti-infectives, topical immunomodulators, and anti-inflammatory agents. Oral medication options prescribed may be antihistamines, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants. DMARDs or biologics may be used in severe refractory disease. Light therapy is a non-pharmacological option that may be prescribed.



National Eczema Association. (2022, January 14). Eczema Causes, Triggers & Symptoms. Retrieved February 3, 2022, from