Presbyopia is a condition caused by a refractive error that causes the image to focus behind the retina. This causes close objects to appear blurry. Presbyopia is commonly diagnosed, occurring in approximately 85% of people over the age of 45.

 What Causes Presbyopia?

Unlike hyperopia which often presents with similar symptoms, presbyopia is not a congenital condition and occurs only in adults. Presbyopia is caused by normal aging of the eye, likely due to the lens of the eye becoming more rigid over time. 

Risk factors include:

  • Exposure to UV radiation- may account for the earlier onset of presbyopia in countries closer to the equator.
  • Other refractive errors- people with undiagnosed hyperopia have been found to have an earlier onset of symptoms.
  • Gender- Women have a higher risk of developing presbyopia than men in the same age group.

Source: Katz, J. A., Karpecki, P. M., Dorca, A., Chiva-Razavi, S., Floyd, H., Barnes, E., Wuttke, M., & Donnenfeld, E. (2021). Presbyopia – A Review of Current Treatment Options and Emerging Therapies. Clinical Ophthalmology, Volume 15, 2167–2178.