Myopia, more commonly known as nearsightedness, is a condition caused by a refractive error that causes the image to focus in front of the retina. It is the most common ocular condition worldwide and its prevalence has been increasing, especially in urban areas. In addition, the age at which the progression of the disease ends has increased.

Etiology of Myopia

Myopia is caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, however, genetics are thought to account for most of the influence. These factors cause changes to the structure of components of the eye- the globe, cornea, or lens- that result in the refractive error.

Risk factors of myopia include:

  • Age- the age of onset is usually between 6 and 14.
  • Genetics- there is a higher risk of the development of myopia in children whose both parents are myopic.
  • Time spent on activities involving near work or reading.

Pathologies associated with Myopia:

  • Macular degeneration
  • Retinal detachment
  • Glaucoma
  • Cataracts

Source: Cooper, J., & Tkatchenko, A. V. (2018). A Review of Current Concepts of the Etiology and Treatment of Myopia. Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice, 44(4), 231–247.